Poverty eradication is an important goal of African social development. China has always attached great importance to exchanges and cooperation with African countries in the field of poverty reduction. With the deepening of the practice and understanding of China-Africa anti-poverty cooperation, in the "Forum on China-Africa Cooperation:Poverty Reduction and Development Conference" in 2016, capacity cooperation has become a new theme of poverty reduction and development in China-Africa cooperation. Through the combing and analysis of relevant literature data at home and abroad in recent years, this paper finds that although China-Africa capacity cooperation, which is based on infrastructure construction, industrial park construction and trade exchanges, has played an important role in poverty reduction and development in African countries in promoting the process of industrialization and agricultural modernization, enhancing endogenous motivation for poverty alleviation, and improving the sustainable livelihood of poor people, at present, in the practice of anti-poverty capacity cooperation between China and Africa, there are still problems such as weak anti-poverty foundation and unoptimized cooperation path. Meanwhile, it is also faced with a series of risks and challenges such as intensified international competition. In order to improve the cooperation between China and Africa, promote the anti-poverty benefits, optimize the implementation path, and better solve the dilemma of cooperation, this paper puts forward relevant countermeasures and suggestions from the four dimensions of government, enterprises, think tanks and folk.