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ParentUnit Ministry of Education

Unit ChongQing University

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    Volume 27,2021 Issue 1
      “双循环新发展格局”专家论坛
    • SHEN Guobing

      2021,27(1):1-13, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.jg.2020.09.006

      Since General Secretary Xi Jinping put forward "the formation of a new development pattern with domestic and international dual cycles as the main body and mutual promotion of domestic and international dual cycles", "dual cycles" have become a hot issue. The studies show that:1) The US-China economic and trade frictions overlapped with the global spread of COVID-19 have caused China's economic and trade development to encounter a "quadruple dilemma", namely, peer-to-peer countermeasures, pandemic shock, lack of trust, and political frictions. The new development pattern, which promotes the mutual promotion of domestic and international dual cycles, is a new era strategy to break through the "four dilemmas". 2) The relatively limited domestic effective demand in China determines the more need to promote the domestic and international dual cycles to achieve real mutual promotion. The ineffective supply of some domestic products and the insufficient effective supply of some high-end products determine that China needs to actively expand effective market demand and effective product supply under the pandemic. 3) We need adhere to the market-oriented allocation of factors and optimize the business environment, so as to make the market intersection of domestic and international dual-cycle mutual development bigger and stronger. 4) It is necessary to adopt multi-policy measures, such as building a dual-cycle overseas hub, supporting central city radiation, and implementing regional gradient complementary strategy, etc., to coordinate the promotion of full opening up, and to accelerate the formation of a large market with market-oriented allocation of factors, mutual promotion of domestic and international dual cycles, and orderly competition and integration to support sustainable economic growth in China.

    • QIAN Xuefeng, PEI Ting

      2021,27(1):14-26, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.jg.2020.09.007

      Faced with the global economic downturn and the continuous spread of COVID-19 epidemic, the uncertainty and instability of the international political and economic situation has increased. Based on theoretical logic and historical experience, it is not only the irreversible trend but also the inherent requirement of China's sustainable development of economy to build a new domestic and international dual cycle development pattern with domestic cycle as the main body, emphasizing linkage cycle, active cycle and dynamic cycle. In essence, the key to the formation of the new pattern lies in building a dual cycle endogenous power and fostering new advantages in international cooperation and competition. Specifically, it is to rely on the national strategy, take advantage of China's super large-scale market, multi-level consumer market and unified large market, to create a dual cycle endogenous market power. This need coordinated work which includes independent innovation as the core, and manufacturing service as the competitive new advantages, and the digital economy as a new opportunity to create a dual cycle industry support role. Moreover, it is important to improve the business environment, foster a dual cycle corporate dominant position, and form a high-level dynamic balance with higher quality supply and more dynamic domestic demand.

    • JIN Wenhui, GOU Xuezhen

      2021,27(1):27-38, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.fx.2020.10.002

      The new development pattern, in which domestic economic cycle plays a leading role while international economic cycle remains its extension and supplement, is a strategic choice in the face of changes in the internal and external economic landscape such as anti-globalization, trade wars, and COVID-19 pandemic. Economic law, which is extremely sensitive to the market economy environment, has coupled with the new development pattern of "dual circulation" in the field of government-market relations, and the legal issues in the new development pattern are focused on the areas of macro-control law and market regulation law. However, economic law, known as "intervention-centered", "responsive" and "problem-oriented" law, the features of which jointly laid the foundation for its response to the new development pattern. In this regard, under the premise of adhering to problem orientation, the response of economic law can comply with the transition from an intervention-oriented government to a regulatory-oriented government as a whole. At the same time, macro-control law needs to adhere to the "discretion under the rule of law", and market regulation law also requires the synchronous advancement of system supply and regulation reform, so as to provide a sound economic legal guarantee for the new development pattern of "dual circulation".

    • 区域开发
    • LI Qiang, WANG Yan

      2021,27(1):39-49, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.jg.2020.05.004

      The Yangtze River Economic Belt is an important inland river economic belt in China, and the development of extensive economy has formed the severe situation of "heavy chemical industry encircling the river" for many years, and the industrial upgrading is imminent. At the same time, the problem of urban spread with the appearance of rapid urbanization is gradually exposed, the urban spread makes the urban space expands rapidly, and the industrial space layout also changes. Whether urban spread can promote industrial upgrading is a question worth exploring. Firstly, this paper explains the internal mechanism of urban sprawl affecting industrial upgrading by using the theory of central periphery, agglomeration economy and division of labor and cooperation, and constructs the indexes of urban spread by using urban night lighting data. Based on the panel data of 104 cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2004 to 2013, the study shows that the urban spread and the industrial upgrading of the Yangtze River Economic Belt show a "U-shaped" relationship, that is, in the short term, the urban spread significantly restricts the industrial upgrading of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. In the long run, driven by the effect of scale economy and division of labor and cooperation, urban spread plays an important role in promoting the industrial upgrading of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The influence of urban spread on the rationalization of industrial structure is positive first and then negative, there is an inverted "U-shaped" relationship between the two, and the influence of urban spread on the upgrading of industrial structure is negative first and then positive, and there is a "U-shaped" relationship between the two. The robustness test of other characterization methods of upgrading further shows that there is a "U-shaped" relationship between urban spread and industrial upgrading. Finally, this paper proposes some policy suggestions to promote industrial upgrading from the perspective of optimizing industrial layout, improving the quality of human capital, technological innovation and so on.

    • HUANG Lei, WU Chuanqing

      2021,27(1):50-64, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.jg.2020.05.002

      This paper measures and analyzes the spatial pattern of green technology innovation efficiency of 110 cities of the Yangtze River Economic Belt in 2017 by using the EBM model. This paper further explores the efficiency's internal driving mechanism with the spatial Durbin model. The results show several findings. Firstly, the efficiency is ahead of the national average level, but there are significant differences between the upper, middle and lower reaches. Secondly, economic development, government support and industrial structure upgrading are the leading forces to directly enhance the green technology innovation capability of the cities. Thirdly, environmental regulation, foreign investment, advanced industrial organization and enterprise benefit have strong spatial spillover effect on the efficiency. To further enhance the green technology innovation capability of cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, it is necessary to accelerate the process of regional green innovation's coordinated development, increase government support for green innovation, optimize environmental governance model, promote industrial structure's greenization and upgradation, and enhance the initiative of enterprises' green technology innovation.

    • LI Xiangrong, ZHU Shaoying, LIU Dongyang

      2021,27(1):65-76, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.jg.2020.05.003

      Taking 11 provinces and cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt as the research object, based on the combined model of PCA-SE-DEA theory, this paper quantitatively tests the scientific and technological innovation efficiency, analyzes the factor system affecting its development process, focuses on the technological innovation efficiency of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and conducts convergence testing and analyzes its influencing factors and causes. At the same time, based on the C-D production function, the paper analyzes the correlation between technological innovation and economic development factors in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The research results show that:the efficiency of technological innovation in the Yangtze River Economic Belt has not reached the average level in China at present; the provinces and cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt show regional differences in the efficiency of technological innovation, and this difference shows an upward trend. Among the influencing factors, the optimization and upgrading of regional industrial structure has the greatest impact on the technological innovation efficiency of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Among them, investment in science and technology, output of science and technology and environment of science and technology are particularly important for the good development of regional economy. The supporting efficiency of science and technology innovation for economic development is generally effective, with obvious regional differences. Therefore, the Yangtze River Economic Belt needs to adjust and plan as a whole, build a coordination mechanism, realize a good operation system of overall innovation and entrepreneurship in the basin, and improve the efficiency of technological innovation in an all-round way.

    • 经济创新与发展
    • TIAN Lin, HAN Yanbo

      2021,27(1):77-90, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.jg.2019.12.002

      Virtual agglomeration, as a new phenomenon and growth point of new disciplines, is quite advanced and involves a wide range of disciplines. This paper combs the connotation, characteristics, modes, incentives, effects and specific applications of virtual agglomeration in detail and evaluates them separately. It summarizes the academic divergences of virtual agglomeration and its future development:different spatial concepts, insufficient risk analysis; mainly for manufacturing industry, insufficient excavation of emerging industries; mostly from micro-enterprises and starting with industry, there is a lack of expansion of regional and international perspectives, and quantitative research and typical case analysis need to be strengthened. It points out that we should advocate an interdisciplinary perspective and mind, and explore the inclusive development of disciplines. In the future, we need to implement the essence and concept of the six two-wheel driving mechanisms (i.e., agglomeration and decentralization, traditional and emerging geography, micro and macro, commonness and individuality, disciplinary exploration and practice), and construct and improve the virtual agglomeration research system with Chinese characteristics.

    • GAO Xiujuan, PENG Chunyan

      2021,27(1):91-99, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.jg.2019.04.008

      Since China's reform and opening up, governments at all levels have continuously issued policies to support small and micro entrepreneurship. At different stages of economic development, relevant policies have a distinct brand of the times. Under the upgrade strategy of "Double Creation" of the State Council in 2018, we need to further consider the path of policy optimization. In this study, 172 entrepreneurship policy texts issued by the central and ministries from 2002 to 2018 are selected to mine the content of the policy texts, in order to understand the evolution trend of hot issues of entrepreneurship policy in China, and to provide ideas for the follow-up policy introduction. Using the quantitative analysis method of policy text, with the aid of policy tool analysis and policy text mining means, semantic network analysis method, and Ucinet tools, this paper makes in-depth analysis of national policy concerns. The results show that:1) In the past 17 years, China's entrepreneurship policy has shown a trend of "inverted U" publication. After reaching its peak in 2015, the number of articles published has fallen. 2)China's entrepreneurship policy system has been basically established, and the policy chain has gradually formed. Around the national strategy and the "root policy" of each period, the policies between the central and ministries have a good echo. 3) The main body of policy shows a trend of diversification and coordination. The number of joint publications increases rapidly, forming complex inter-governmental relations. 4) Policy instruments show a comprehensive and unbalanced trend. The utilization rate of policy tools such as "government procurement" and "external contracting" to stimulate demand is low. 5) Policy concerns are characterized by deepening and times. "Industry convergence", entrepreneurship "service" and entrepreneurship "guarantee" have become the focus of attention. However, the policy of "small and micro + new technology" and "One Belt and One Road" initiative are inadequate. The innovation of this study is embodied in the self-built "China's Entrepreneurship Policy Text Database", the measurement and data mining of policy texts, the stage evolution analysis and the analysis of ideas and conclusions.

    • ZHANG Min, YANG Haoye

      2021,27(1):100-109, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.jg.2019.07.001

      Taking enterprise network as the context of mass entrepreneurship and innovation, this study investigates the transformation mechanism of small and micro firms based on the perspective of policy supply and network embeddedness. The government policy supply and enterprise network embeddedness can effectively influence the transformation performance of small and micro enterprises. The structural embeddedness is beneficial to improve the transformation performance of small and micro enterprises, while the relational embeddedness has an inverted U-shaped relationship with the improvement of transformation performance. Financial support policies and public service policies play a moderating role in the relationship between network embeddedness and the transformation performance of small and micro enterprises. Crucially, the dynamic matching of policy supply and network embeddedness promotes the transformation process. The intertwine of government-business interactions and interfirm interaction can provide a strong "sanctuary network" for small and micro enterprises.

    • 社科研究与评价
    • QIU Junping, SHU Fei, LU Jian, ZHOU Zifan

      2021,27(1):110-121, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.pj.2020.10.001

      This paper takes the matching problem of 22 disciplines in the ESI system and 108 first-class disciplines in Chinese "double first-class" construction as the research object, according to the principles of taxonomy, and using the discipline map and other methods to creatively correspond to the two, and tries to open up the evaluation gap between the Chinese and foreign evaluation systems due to the mismatch of discipline classification. It first discusses the urgent need and important significance of international assessment of disciplines for "double first-class" construction. Secondly, it clearly points out the three characteristics and shortcomings of ESI discipline classification, that is, the classification of papers is based on journals, while the discipline classification focuses on natural sciences; the discipline settings are different and the classification is not perfect; the setting of university disciplines is not conducive to professional institutions and department evaluation. Then, the research focuses on the matching methods of ESI discipline classification and Chinese first-class discipline categories, including matching paths, matching methods, etc. In addition to using discipline map matching, it also innovatively uses the four indicators of journal distribution, paper distribution, Chinese paper distribution, and Chinese first author paper distribution for final matching. Finally, the matching results are analyzed in detail, and three regular conclusions are drawn:(1) Most of the first-class disciplines can be matched with a major ESI discipline that has absolute advantages; (2) The tendency of Chinese scholars to publish paper determines the secondary ESI corresponding discipline; (3) The matching of "self-defined" first-class disciplines overlaps with some disciplines. The research results of this paper basically solve the "bottleneck" problem in Chinese world-class discipline evaluation, and provide important support for the construction of a world-class discipline evaluation system combining domestic standards with international standards.

    • MENG Xiaojun, PENG Yuanyuan

      2021,27(1):122-132, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.pj.2020.05.003

      The construction of philosophy and social sciences with Chinese characteristics and Chinese style has always been the fundamental purpose of the prosperity and development of philosophy and social sciences in China. To promote the prosperity and development of philosophy and social sciences in colleges and universities, the scientific and effective evaluation of philosophy and social sciences research is indispensable. Adhering to the Party leadership, "Two Acts" orientation and "Double Hundred" policy is the fundamental guarantee for the prosperity and development of philosophy and social sciences. It is necessary for the prosperity and development of philosophy and social sciences to adhere to "quality-oriented" and "innovation first". And it is also the requirement of the practice of philosophy and social sciences research evaluation to insist on scientific authority, openness, and transparency. Combined with the three major issues-the debate on the relationship between quantity and quality in the quantitative evaluation, the boundary alienation between academic evaluation and evaluation of scientific research management, and the institutional regulation of academic power and administrative power-in the current evaluation of philosophy and social sciences research in colleges and universities, this paper suggests that we should strengthen the quality assurance mechanism of academic achievements, optimize the working mechanism of academic community, build a long-term mechanism of academic contention, and improve the application mechanism of academic achievements, to promote the construction of scientific, authoritative, open and transparent evaluation system of philosophy and social sciences research, and to further improve the evaluation of philosophy and social sciences research in colleges and universities in the new era.

    • 法学研究
    • ZHOU Sijia

      2021,27(1):133-140, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.fx.2019.10.001

      The personal data right is a personal right, not a property right, and the personal data right is mainly in the field of public law. Therefore, personal data right is mainly a constitutional right. In the area of public law, the data subject's right to self-determination is greatly restricted. The public authority may collect and use personal data without the consent of the data subject based on public interest or the necessity of management functions. In order to avoid infringement of the rights of citizens on personal data by public authorities, public authorities must obey the principle of functional necessity and the principle of parties' knowledge when collecting personal data of citizens. When using personal data, they must abide by the specific purpose principle. As a constitutional right, personal data right has the function of preventing public power from violating the personal data rights of citizens. On the other hand, when the right of personal data of citizens is infringed by other civil subjects, he(she) has the right to request the public power to bear the protection. If so, as a constitutional right, the right to personal data is complete and self-contained.

    • TIAN Xiaochu, GAO Shanxing

      2021,27(1):141-151, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.fx.2020.04.003

      The use of modern network technology and scientific and technological methods has broken the traditional transaction model in the use and dissemination of big data, making piracy in the digital age a low-cost dependency that is not limited by time and space, or even sacrificing "creation" for the rapid development of the information society. Facing the lagging problem of the protection of big data resources through legal relief, people are thinking about conflicts and coordination of big data in the protection of copyright law. In order to achieve the purpose of protecting big data rights holders and maximizing social benefits, this paper takes big data and its tenure debate as the starting point, and uses the theoretical paradigm of law economics and legal philosophy to derive the ownership division and value gains of big data. The feasibility conclusion that big data is applicable to the protection of copyright law is drawn. Drawing on the experience and consensus of big data in the legal framework of the common law system and civil law system, deconstructing the benefits and hindrances of the application of copyright law to big data, the paper tries to establish a "data right" or a form compatible with other legal systems to examine the scientific rationality of jurisprudence when facing with modern science, and provide more possibilities for the legal protection of big data.

    • XIE Zhongzhou, CHEN Demin

      2021,27(1):152-163, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.fx.2020.04.004

      The protected area plays an important role in maintaining ecological balance and realizing ecosystem service function. There are differences in the supply of main function of ecosystem services in different types of nature protected area. The legislative work of Act of Nature Conservation Areas is based on the typification of nature protection land in theory. And the corresponding planning and construction, operation management and other aspects of the system should be built. Therefore, based on the difference of ecosystem service function supply, the current overlapping and lack of systematic types of natural conservation areas can be transformed into four types:national parks, nature reserves, nature parks and small nature conservation areas. The legal system of "one basic law and four typed regulations" will be built. The governance of natural conservation areas can be strengthened by institutionalizing public law and private law system tools.

    • XIANG Wang, QIN Peng

      2021,27(1):164-176, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.fx.2020.04.010

      The Supreme People's Court's "Some Provisions on the Trial of Ecological Environmental Damage Compensation Cases (Trial)" is a staged result under practical rational feedback. Although it has initially clarified the theoretical and practical levels of ecological environmental damage compensation litigation and civil public interest litigation. Due to the failure to refine and systematically design the specifications, there are still many generalities and roughness. By using the method of legal doctrine to outline the construction of the connection between ecological environmental damage compensation litigation and civil public interest litigation, and examining the coupling with litigation systems under the current normative design, we can find that there are many system vacuums and system conflicts between ecological environment damage compensation litigation and civil public interest litigation, though both are in the ecological environment damage judicial relief system. It not only reduces the institutional function of consultation on compensation for ecological environmental damage, but also affects the enthusiasm of social organizations to participate in environmental governance, resulting in unnecessary waste of judicial resources. In order to further achieve effective connection, on the one hand, it is necessary to fill in the connection rules between consultation and civil public interest litigation, embed the principle of proportionality to limit compensation obligee's exercise of right of litigation, and clearly deny the legal effect of judicial confirmation; on the other hand, it is necessary to refine the connection rules of different types of civil public interest litigation, improve the supervision and coordination functions of the procuratorial organs, and establish the information mechanism and consultation mechanism between social organizations and administrative organs.

    • SHI Chao

      2021,27(1):177-190, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.fx.2019.07.001

      The change from "regulatory protection" to "social protection" of securities investor protection mode can give securities investors the maximum and most effective protection within the norms. The disadvantage of traditional supervision-oriented protection is highlighted in the reflection of financial crisis. The combination of the concept of "conduct regulation" devoted to strengthening the protection through independent mechanism and the practice of private law protection of "shareholding exercise" in China provides a systematic reflection on the way of professional protection. Therefore, based on the compatibility of commercial spirit and the limitation of regulatory protection mode, the transformation of protection mechanism of securities investors should be the "private right" incentive of "socialization" approach. That is, learning from the advantages of conduct regulation in ensuring the "priority" of protection objectives and the "initiative" mechanism of behavior mode, and embedding them into the design of investor protection system by means of the incentive mechanism of socialization, specialization, self-awareness and judicial protection. As a result, while alleviating the dependence on the path of public power regulation, it can activate the social protection power promoted by the specialization and demonstration effect, and objectively achieve a virtuous circle of "protection promoting supervision".

    • WANG Xiangchun

      2021,27(1):191-202, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.fx.2019.07.002

      There are many kinds of legal liability mechanisms in violation of the rules of report on a large number of holdings shares, and the setting of legal liability is closely related to the positioning of the rules of report on a large number of holdings shares. After comparative study, the rules of report on a large number of holdings shares in some countries are incorporated into the disclosure system framework and others are incorporated into the takeovers system framework. In the former, the main legal liability is money penalties. In the latter, the main legal liability is limiting the voting rights. The legal liability mechanism of limiting the right to vote can be divided into two modes:the civil action of the private subject and the law enforcement of the public authority. According to the existing normative path and institutional environment in China, it is advisable to adopt the legal liability of limiting the voting power by the public authority, which can better strike a balance between restricting inappropriate takeovers and promoting the efficiency of corporate governance. On this basis, we should relax or even cancel the slow walking rule, reduce the takeover cost, and promote the development of corporate control market, so as to offset the negative impact of restricting voting rights on the control market, maintain a neutral position on corporate takeover, and better balance the interests of all parties.

    • 政治建设与社会治理
    • TANG Bo, LI Zhi

      2021,27(1):203-214, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.ZS.2020.05.005

      Artificial intelligence (AI) also brings technical risks and ethical disputes while improving the efficiency of social production and promoting economic growth. The worry of "human resources displacement" becomes the focus of social individuals. The technical progress of AI has led to the influence of the market structure of the labor force, the business environment of the organizations, the social division of labor, the workforce and the cognizance of the workers. AI also has resulted in the replacement and innovation of labor, organization, occupation, task and skill. When it comes to the intelligent society, the combination of dynamic adaptation, integrated complementary and harmonious symbiosis between AI and human resources should be established, and the common prosperity of technological progress and human interest should be achieved. China has a great amount of human resources within the process of innovation-driven transformation. It could be reduce the negative and unhelpful effect of replacement between AI and human that increasing employment opportunities, protecting labor rights, updating professional skills and establishing the bottom line of technical ethics.

    • XU Yaqing, YU Shui

      2021,27(1):215-226, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.zs.2020.03.006

      In the perspective of discourse theory, the connotation of state governance in the new era should be based on the value core of people's work led by the Communist Party of China. Rising from the file Investigation of Xing Guo in the period of revolutionary power building, the value is laid foundation during times of establishment of the PRC, which was described in the article of People's Letters Must Be Taken Seriously of. After the reform and opening up, people's work was seen in the progress of rule of law, as Regulation of Visit and Letters was revised in 2005. The discourse has been totally founded after the fourth plenary session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, with the recognition of context and value of taking people as the basis. Therefore, the whole discourse can only be developed in balance of three paths, which are total system and fragment technology, tradition of mobilization and value of stability in reform, static policy and unknown risk, and those three paths can only be fixed by law, fairness and collaborative governance.

    • WANG Xu, QIN Shusheng

      2021,27(1):227-237, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.gg.2019.07.001

      Xi Jinping's statement on the construction of ecological civilization contains fertile thoughts on the modernization of environmental governance. The modernization of environmental governance concept is the ideological basis for promoting the modernization of environmental governance. Strengthening the leadership of the Party in environmental protection is the political guarantee to promote the modernization of environmental governance. The fundamental contents of environmental governance system modernization include perfecting the ecological environment supervision system, legal system, and policy-supporting system, and establishing a governance system which are jointly participated by the government, enterprises, social organizations and the public. To promote the modernization of environmental governance capacity, green technology innovation should be strengthened, and information construction of ecological environment monitoring network and analytic techniques of big data of environment are the fundamental contents.

    • 人文论坛
    • QIU Yongzhi, ZHANG Guokun

      2021,27(1):238-254, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.rw.2020.10.006

      The parallel pattern of copper and silver formed in the middle and late Ming dynasty continued to the Qing dynasty. However, under the same monetary pattern, the governments of the two dynasties showed great distinction in the management ability of copper money circulation:since the ChengHong period of the Ming dynasty, efforts were made to establish the rule of copper coins and save the circulation system of copper coins, but it didn't work, in the late Ming dynasty, nongovernmental coinage was rampant, the value of copper coins was disordered, silver replaced copper coins, the circulation of copper coins was greatly reduced, and the government almost lost ability of intervening currency market. In contrast, in the Qing dynasty, the copper coin system was established in an orderly manner. The value of copper coins fluctuated around the official price and was relatively stable,the circulation of copper coins broke through the restriction of "places where coins can be exchanged", and there was a widespread phenomenon of "copper coins replace silver". The government owned a relatively strong ability of intervening the currency market. The reason why the circulation system of copper coins in Ming and Qing dynasties changed from decline to reorganization lies in the differences in the basis of commodity economy and the organizing power of market, the increasing demand of the people for small currency, and the most important is the powerful monetary policy of the Qing government.

    • XU Chen

      2021,27(1):255-265, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.rw.2020.10.005

      As an important aspect of the particularity of the monetary system, the regional money market often showed different characteristics in different regions in modern China. As one of the earliest open trading ports in modern times, Fuzhou has formed a unique currency market based on its special geographic location and industry characteristics. Among them, relying on private credit and the wood industry as the main capital flow, regional commercial bills of exchange with "wooden bills" as the main representative was formed. Although it is derived from traditional commercial bills of exchange, it has the function of discounting bills. This makes wooden bills truly commercial bills of exchange in the sense of modern finance. Compared with traditional Chinese commercial bills of exchange, wooden bills have the characteristics of modern financial instruments and even have certain currency functions. This paper attempts to use Chinese and Japanese historical materials to discuss the credit mechanism and financial innovations of Fuzhou wooden bills operating mechanism and currency function through a systematic explanation, showing that Fuzhou has formed the emerging stage of bill market in modern times.

    • WANG Zhenghua

      2021,27(1):266-279, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.rw.2020.10.001

      Based on the contract documents about five villages in southern Shanxi Province collected by Tsinghua University, contract inscriptions published in North China, and official and local history materials, the shuidi, shuifen, shuilu, shuidao and shuidi, which are closely related to land management and farmers' life, are brought into the research field of land and house transaction. For land transaction, whether there is a stable irrigation water source directly affects the way and price of land transaction, which has become one of the criteria for tax division. In the systematic and networked water rights management and distribution system, there is an imbalance between the acquisition of water and the actual market demand for irrigation water. Water is sold separately, and the government and non-governmental organizations prohibit it from the perspective of social stability and tax collection. The tension of the two results in the coexistence of separate water sales and land water sales. In addition, in land transaction, the right to use irrigation waterways owned by individuals is often clearly stated and stipulated. For housing transactions, the waterways directly drained by farmers' houses and yards are owned by individuals, and an explanation is added in the transaction. As two functions of drainage and boundary, shuidi often plays an important role in neighborhood disputes. It is often explained in accordance with folk customs in order to ensure the stability of rural society.

    • 教育研究
    • QUAN Peipei, DUAN Yu, CUI Yanqiang

      2021,27(1):280-290, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.jy.2020.10.004

      Humanities and social sciences originated from the rise of the modern nation-state, and the interpretation and criticism of modernity have always constituted its classical tradition, but at the same time, the pervasive penetration of modernity has also exposed the development of humanities and social sciences to the danger of alienation. As an overcoming and surpassing of the modernity of modern social sciences, new liberal arts is a new form of liberal arts knowledge production and reproduction in the post-industrial era based on highly integrated, informatized and digitized knowledge. It takes cross-cutting frontier, strategic needs, modern technology and regional advantages as its driving force, and the construction of majors and curriculum systems, the construction of interdisciplinary faculty, the establishment of teaching and research evaluation standards and the formation of operation modes as its four core elements. In the specific construction practice, exploring domestic and foreign interdisciplinary joint degree training, establishing a modern academy system based on multidisciplinary clusters, promoting the construction of "new liberal arts laboratories" and practicing "traditional liberal arts +" can become four models for universities to explore the construction of new liberal arts.

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