The compression behavior of river sediments is an important factor affecting the design and disposal of environmental dredging of river sediments. To investigate the compressibility of four river sediments, the consolidation tests of four kinds of river raw sediments and river sediments with hydrogen peroxide treated were performed in adapted odometers. The compression behavior of river sediments was studied and the effect of organic matter content on compression of sediments was discussed. The results show that the contents of organic matter in river sediments varies widely, and the compression behavior of river sediments is closely related to the physical properties of sediments. It is found that the main factors of influencing the compression behavior of reconstituted river sediments are initial void ratio and void ratio at liquid limit. The effect of organic matter on the compression behavior of river sediments can be attributed to the change of the liquid limit void ratio. The organic matter content affects the liquid limit and specific gravity of the river sediments, which leads to the change of remoulded yielding stress and compression behavior of river sediments. With increase of organic matter content, void ratio at liquid limit and compression index of river sediments increases, and the compressibility of river sediments is higher.