The function of the bridge foundation is to transfer traffic loads to the ground. Thus, the safety of the bridge foundation is essential to the safety of the entire bridge structure. The advances of research and development of bridge foundation engineering are crucial for the development of long-span bridges. In recent years, with the development of long-span bridges crossing wide rivers, deep seas, and poor geological regions, there have been some great progresses in the research on the issues related to the design and construction of bridge foundations in China. In this paper, the research progress and findings in such areas as the foundation scour, the sea wave actions, seismic actions, bridge damage assessment, the design and construction of bridge foundations in the region of poor geological conditions, and the reuse of existing bridge foundations are reviewed and commented. Some major findings in these areas are analyzed and discussed. In the conclusions, the future research trends and some important research issues on bridge foundations, which need to be cared by the bridge engineering community, are identified, to provide researchers and engineers with the up-to-date information on the research ideas that further promote the advancement of the bridge foundation engineering.