When the train passes through a viaduct bridge, the vibration energy is transmitted to the bridge deck and other bridge components through the track structure, which gives rise to bridge vibration. The vibrating bridge radiates noise into the air, which is known as bridge-borne noise. In recent years, with the rapid development of high-speed railway and urban rail transit, the prediction methods, generation mechanisms and control measures of rail transit bridge-borne noise have become hot research topics. In addition, with the wide application of the sound barriers on bridges, the noise reduction performances, vibration and secondary structure-borne noise characteristics of sound barriers have also become hot research directions. In this paper, the research on vibration and noise of rail transit bridges and sound barriers in the past year is reviewed, the current research hotspots are summarized, and the future development trend is forecasted.