The sources and components of hospital sewage are complex, including pathogenic microorganisms, drugs, metabolites, antibiotic resistant genes, heavy metals, contrast agents, etc. It will become an important way of epidemic spread and a serious source of environmental pollution without effective treatment. Moreover, the emerging contaminants, such as drugs, have become a hotspot in water environment and water pollution control, and the hospital sewage is one of important sources of these contaminants. Based on the impact of COVID-19 on the prevention and control system of the medical system during the current epidemic period, this review illustrated the distribution of drugs and pathogenic microorganisms in hospital sewage, summarized the progress and problems of domestic and foreign hospital sewage treatment technology, and also proposed the future development direction of hospital sewage treatment technology. More importantly, under the special circumstances of COVID-19 epidemic, higher requirements and standards are needed for the construction of hospital sewage control system. Specifically, the simultaneous degradation of drugs and disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms may be the "hotspot" for the development of hospital sewage treatment technology and equipment in the future.