School of Environmental and Safety Engineering,Changzhou University
以常州市武进区洛阳镇6座分散式农村污水处理设施为研究对象，分别采集了处理设施总进水、总出水及湿地土壤，共检测出样品中11种PFCAs (全氟羟酸类物质C4~C14）和4种PFSAs (全氟磺酸类物质C4、C6、C8、C10)及MeFOSA(N-甲基全氟辛基磺酰胺)、EtFOSA(N-乙基全氟辛基磺酰胺)、MeFOSE(N-甲基全氟辛基磺酰氨基乙醇)等PFOS(全氟辛烷磺酸)前体物质的质量浓度。统计分析表明：6种PFCAs和3种PFSAs在6个村庄污水处理设施总进水检出率均在83.33%以上；PFSAs中浓度最高组分为PFOS，浓度范围为（N.D.~79.89 ng?L-1）、PFCAs浓度最高的组分为PFOA(全氟辛酸铵)，浓度范围为（3.87~8.6 ng?L-1）；3种不同污水收集方式中的全氟及多氟类化合物(PFASs)浓度特征为雨污合流及企业排水＞雨污分流＞雨污合流，接触氧化A/O工艺和多级A/O工艺总出水中的PFASs浓度高于总进水，对PFASs没有去除效果；A/O-MBR工艺则对中链PFASs具有较好的去除效果，去除率为81.27%.对PFOS的去除最为明显，浓度从64.45 ng?L-1降到了15.41ng?L-1，去除率可达74.9%，但其对短链PFASs未见有明显去除效果；人工湿地对中链PFASs也具有较好的去除效果，湿地出水中PFOS可从15.41ng?L-1降至检出限以下。短链PFASs具有较低的吸附势和疏水性，更易存在于液相中而不是在固相中，使得几种工艺对其均未见有明显去除效果，甚至出水浓度较进水高。
In this study, six decentralized rural sewage treatment facilities in Luoyang Town, Wujin District, Changzhou City were used as the research objects. The total inlet water, total outflow water and wetland soils from six dispersed rural sewage treatment facilities were sampled. And the mass concentrations of 11 PFCAs (perfluorohydroxyl acid substances, C4-C14), 4 PFSAs (perfluorosulfonic acid substances, C4, C6, C8, and C10), MeFOSA (n-methyl perfluorooctyl sulfonamide), EtFOSA (n-ethyl perfluorooctyl sulfonamide), MeFOSE (n-methyl perfluorooctyl sulfonamide) and other precursors were detected in these samples. The results showed that the detection rates of 6 PFCAs and 3 PFSAs in the influent water of 6 sewage treatment facilities were over 83.33%. In PFSAs, PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid) had the highest concentration, and the concentration range was from N.D. to 79.89 ng? L-1. In PFCAs, PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) had the highest concentration, and the concentration range was from 3.87 to 8.60 ng? L-1. The concentration characteristics of perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds (PFASs) in three different wastewater collection methods was: rainwater and sewage confluence and enterprise drainage > rain and sewage diversion > rainwater and sewage confluence. In the process of A/O contact oxidation and the multistage A/O process, the total concentration of PFASs in the outlet water was higher than that in the inlet water. So these two processes had no removal effect on PFASs. But A/O-MBR process had good removal effect on the medium-chain PFASs, the removal rate is 81.27%.The removal of PFOS was the most obvious, the concentration of PFOS decreased from 64.45 to 15.41 ng? L-1, and the removal rate was about 74.90%. However, the process had no obvious removal on the short-chain PFASs. Constructed wetlands also had good removal effect on the medium-chain PFASs. And PFOS in outlet water of wetlands could be reduced from 15.41 ng? L-1 to below the detection limit. The short-chain PFASs had low adsorption potential and hydrophobicity, which made it easier to exist in the liquid phase rather than in the solid phase, resulting in a higher effluent concentration of short-chain PFASs, So that several processes have no obvious removal effect on them, even the concentration of effluent water is higher than that of inflow water.