1.College of Environmental and Safety Engineering,Changzhou University;2.China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation Jinling Branch
针对炼油厂浮渣油泥(简称“浮渣油泥”)含有大量污油、成分复杂且较难处理等问题,采用超声波法对中石化金陵分公司产生的浮渣油泥进行预处理试验,通过L16(44)正交试验法分析了超声功率、超声温度、超声时间、超声频次对浮渣油泥除油率的影响,利用SPSS 25.0进行误差分析并运用单因素试验细化了正交实验结果,通过红外光谱仪分析了超声前后油泥成份变化情况。试验结果表明：因素的影响顺序为超声功率＜超声时间＜超声温度＜超声频次；当超声功率70 W、超声时间15 min、超声温度55℃、超声频次3次时,其对石油类物质去除率可达32.46%；红外光谱显示超声后油泥对应峰的光谱强度下降,含油量下降明显,芳烃、醇类、烷烃、烯烃类物质等均有减少,表明石油烃长链及高分子有机物碳链被破坏；超声后萃取出的油中烷烃类物质减少,醇类物质增多,说明烷烃的一个氢基被羟基代替,生成对应的醇,相比之烷烃,醇更容易被微生物降解。超声波处理浮渣油泥中机制为：通过机械效应、空化作用及热效应破坏石油烃长链及高分子有机物碳链,降低浮渣油泥黏度,促使油、泥、水三相易于分离,从而降低浮渣油泥中的石油类物质含量。超声波法为物理法,无外加化学药价,处理方法简单,可作为浮渣油泥微生物法深度处理的预处理手段。
Given the problems of oil refinery slag sludge ("slag sludge") containing a large amount of dirty oil, complex composition, and challenging to deal with, the pretreatment test of slag sludge produced by Sinopec Jinling Branch was used by ultrasonic means. The influence of ultrasonic power, ultrasonic temperature, ultrasonic time, and ultrasonic frequency on the decontamination rate of slag sludge was analyzed by L16 (44) orthogonal test method. Error analysis was carried out by SPSS 25.0, and the orthogonal experimental results were refined by using the single-factor test. The infrared spectrometer analyzed the change of the composition of the sludge before and after the ultrasonic. The experimental results show that the order of influence factors is ultrasonic power < ultrasonic time < ultrasonic temperature < ultrasonic frequency. When the ultrasonic power is 70 W, the ultrasonic time is 15 min, the ultrasonic temperature is 55℃, and the ultrasonic frequency is three times the removal rate of petroleum substances can reach 32.46%. The infrared spectrum showed that the spectral intensity and oil content of the corresponding peak of oil sludge decreased significantly after ultrasonic. Aromatics, alcohols, alkanes, olefins, and other substances all decreased, indicating that the long chains of petroleum hydrocarbons and the carbon chains of high molecular organic compounds were destroyed. After ultrasonic extraction, the number of alkane substances in the oil decreases, while the amount of alcohol substances increases, indicating that one hydrogen group of an alkane is replaced by a hydroxyl group to produce corresponding alcohol. Compared with alkane, alcohol is more easily degraded by microorganisms. The mechanism of ultrasonic Treatment of scum oil sludge is as follows: through mechanical effect, cavitation effect and thermal effect, the long chain of petroleum hydrocarbon and the high molecular organic carbon chain are destroyed, the viscosity of scum oil sludge is reduced, and the three phases of oil, mud, and water are easily separated, thus reducing the content of petroleum substances in scum oil sludge. The ultrasonic method is a physical method, no additional chemical drug price, the treatment method is simple, can be used as a composite treatment process pretreatment means.