1.School of Environmental Safety Engineering,Changzhou University,Changzhou;2.Jinling Branch of China Petroleum Chemical Corporation,Nanjing
针对炼油厂含油废水处理过程中产生的“三泥”处置难题，从大庆油田含油污泥中分离出一株既产表面活性剂又能降解石油烃的菌株GJ，通过进行观察形态特征观察、生理生化实验及16S rDNA序列分析，鉴定GJ菌株为希瓦氏菌属（Shewanella sp.），将菌株GJ应用于浮渣和生化污泥的降解试验，探讨了GJ对浮渣和生化污泥的降解动力学。对菌株产物进行提取纯化、薄层层析初步判断、红外光谱分析证实GJ菌产物中存在一个五元环内酯结构和糖苷键，为糖脂类表面活性剂。浮渣和生化污泥降解试验中，菌株GJ第7天时石油烃降解率最高分别达到81.11%和83.21%；生化污泥的降解试验中，菌株GJ第7天时石油烃降解率最高达83.21%。Logistic生长模型（R2=0.972）、Luedeking-Piret模型（R2=0.985）和一级反应动力学模型，分别可以很好的模拟GJ菌体生长、表面活性产物合成和对石油烃的降解过程。初步推断GJ菌以石油烃作为碳源，在生长过程中分泌可打破油水界面表面活性剂打破油水界面，增大菌株与石油烃的接触程度，促进GJ菌对石油烃的摄取、代谢并进行自我增殖。本文可为研究希瓦氏菌降解石油烃的机理和工程应用提供理论参考。
In order to solve the problem of "three sludges" in the treatment of oily wastewater from oil refinery, a strain GJ was isolated from the oily sludge of Daqing Oilfield, which produced surfactant and degraded petroleum hydrocarbon. Through morphological observation, physiological and biochemical experiments and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the strain GJ was identified as Shewanella sp. The strain GJ was applied to the degradation experiment of scum and biochemical sludge, and the degradation kinetics of scum and biochemical sludge by GJ was discussed. After extraction and purification, TLC and FTIR analysis, it was confirmed that there was a five membered ring lactone structure and glycosidic bond in GJ product, which was a glycolipid surfactant. In the experiment of scum and biochemical sludge degradation, the degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbon reached 81.11% and 83.21% respectively at the 7th day of strain GJIn the scum degradation test, the petroleum hydrocarbon degradation rate of strain GJ reached 81.11% on the seventh day, and 83.21% on the seventh day of biochemical sludge degradation test. Logistic growth model (R2 = 0.972), luedeking piret model (R2 = 0.985) and first-order reaction kinetics model can simulate the growth of GJ cell, the synthesis of surface active products and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. It is preliminarily inferred that GJ bacteria take petroleum hydrocarbon as carbon source, and secrete surfactant at the oil-water interface during the growth process, increase the contact degree between the strain and petroleum hydrocarbon, and promote the uptake, metabolism and self proliferation of GJ bacteria. This paper can provide a theoretical reference for the study of the mechanism of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by Shewanella spp. and its engineering application.