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办公建筑内部负荷扰量特性与计算方法
丁研, 王朝霞, 朱能, 杨钒
天津大学 环境科学与工程学院, 天津 300072
摘要:
随着建筑围护结构保温性能的逐步提高,以室内人员为代表的内部因素已成为影响建筑负荷的重要不确定性因素,内部负荷扰量(简称内扰)在空调负荷设计中的重要性需要被强调。通过对两栋办公建筑的实地测试发现,办公建筑中人员在室率普遍只有设计人数的40%~60%,设备的实际功率也远低于20 W/m2的概算指标,过大的经验值是造成机组选型偏大的重要原因。重新思考标准中的人员密度系数和设备使用密度系数,以人为核心将建筑内扰负荷结合起来,提出"代表人"的内扰负荷计算方法,并对案例建筑的负荷设计进行修正。相比最大实测冷负荷,修正后的设计冷负荷富余率均在10%以内。
关键词:  办公建筑  负荷扰量  空调设计负荷  人行为
DOI:10.11835/j.issn.2096-6717.2019.086
分类号:TU111.19
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51678396)
Calculation method and characteristics of interior load disturbances for office buildings
Ding Yan, Wang Zhaoxia, Zhu Neng, Yang Fan
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, P. R. China
Abstract:
With the improvement of the thermal insulation performance of building envelop, the influence of internal factors represented by occupant behavior have become the most important uncertain factors that impact cooling loads and energy consumption. With field test, it was found that the practical occupancy rate in the office buildings was only 40%~60% of that the cooling design condition and the power intensity of office equipment was also lower than 20 W/m2. Oversized chillers were also related with over-estimated occupancy rate and equipment power intensity. With reconsideration of these coefficients, the "representative cooling load" was proposed to replace the separated occupant and equipment cooling loads, and modified the cooling results of the case buildings. Comparing with the maximum measured cooling load during testing period, assurance rate of modified cooling load were more than 90%.
Key words:  office building  load disturbances  building design cooling loads  occupant behavior
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