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    大数据时代公民个人信息刑法保护的边界——以“违反国家有关规定”的实质解释为中心
    江耀炜
    厦门大学 法学院, 福建 厦门 361005
    摘要:
    "违反国家有关规定"是成立侵犯公民个人信息罪的前置性条件,对其性质和地位的正确把握,是确定公民个人信息刑法保护边界的重要依据。在本罪中"违反国家有关规定"仅仅是为提示违法性而存在,而不是构成要件要素。本罪所保护的法益是个人生活的安宁,而不是所谓的信息自决权。在本罪司法认定过程中,"违反国家有关规定"有两个层面的价值和意义:一方面在认定行为人的行为符合构成要件之后,通过"违反国家有关规定"的提示违法性功能,审查行为人的行为是否具有违法阻却事由即法律上的根据;另一方面,在行为人的责任评价阶段,通过本罪所保护的法益对"违反国家有关规定"的实质解释评价行为人违法性认识的有无、错误的可避免性,进而作出行为人的行为是否可归责的评价。
    关键词:  信息危机  侵犯公民个人信息罪  违反国家有关规定  信息自决权  安宁权
    DOI:10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.fx.2018.09.003
    分类号:D922.8;D924.3
    基金项目:教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目"大数据时代个人信息保护边界与策略研究"(17JZD031)
    The boundary of citizens' personal information criminal protection in big data age: Focusing on substantive interpretation of “violation of the national relevant stipulations”
    JIANG Yaowei
    Law School, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, P. R. China
    Abstract:
    As "violation of the national relevant stipulations" is the prerequisite condition to establish the crime of infringing on citizens' personal information, it is important to grasp its nature and status, which is the basis to determine the border of protecting personal information by criminal law. In the crime, "violation of the national relevant stipulations" is only to suggest the existence of illegality, rather than the element of constitutive requirements. The legal interests protected by this crime are the tranquility of personal life, not the so-called right of informational self-determination. In the process of judicial determination of this crime, "violation of the national relevant stipulations" has two levels of value and significance. On one hand, it is necessary to examine whether the perpetrator has reason to hinder the illegality through the illegality suggesting function of "violation of the national relevant stipulations" after confirming that the behavior conforms to the constituent elements. On the other hand, in the stage of responsibility evaluation, we should estimate the existence of knowledge of illegality and the avoidability of wrongful acts by substantive interpreting of the legal benefits protected by the crime, and then we can decide whether attribute liability to the perpetrator or not.
    Key words:  information crisis  infringing on citizens' personal information  violation of the national relevant stipulations  right of informational self-determination  peaceful right
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