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    共享电单车的政府监管研究
    聂帅钧
    上海交通大学 凯原法学院, 上海 200030
    摘要:
    共享电单车是传统电动自行车与"互联网+"技术相融合而形成的创新事物,但却在各地推广时处处受阻。在宏观调控层面,当前政府实行不鼓励发展共享电单车的产业政策,这一政策的形成受到公共安全、环境污染、国家标准、监管理念四重因素的影响。然而,基于保障公民出行权、履行生存照顾责任、发展分享经济,以及包容审慎监管的要求,政府应当实施鼓励发展的产业政策。在微观规制层面,政府监管共享电单车的行政立法和行政执法均面临合法性不足的问题:不鼓励规范与《立法法》相悖、执法措施违背了公法原理、放任不管涉嫌行政不作为。毫疑问,共享电单车的运营需要有效的政府监管,为促进共享电单车的健康发展,应从监管依据、监管主体、监管原则、监管措施等四个方面构建完善的监管体系。
    关键词:  政府监管  共享电单车  公民出行权  分享经济  制度设计
    DOI:10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.fx.2018.09.002
    分类号:D922.181
    基金项目:
    The research on government regulation of electric bicycle sharing in China
    NIE Shuaijun
    Koguan Law school, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, P. R. China
    Abstract:
    Electric bicycle sharing is an innovation that combines traditional electric bicycles with the "Internet+" technology, but it has been hampered everywhere. At the macro-control level, the government is implementing an industrial policy that does not encourage the development of electric bicycle sharing at present, and the formation of this policy is affected by the four factors of public safety, environmental pollution, national standards, and regulatory concepts. However, based on the protection of citizens' right to travel, the fulfillment of the responsibilities for survival and care, the development of sharing economy, and the need to accommodate prudential supervision, the government should implement industrial policies that encourage development. At the micro regulatory level, government regulation of electric bicycle sharing through administrative legislation and administrative law enforcement is facing the problem of insufficient legitimacy:the discouraging provisions are contrary to the Legislation Law, the enforcement measures violate the principle of public law and leaving unchecked is suspected as administrative inaction. There is no doubt that the operation of electric bicycle sharing requires effective government supervision. In order to promote the healthy development of electric bicycle sharing, a perfect supervision system should be constructed from four aspects, such as the basis of supervision, the subject of supervision, the principle of supervision and the measures of supervision.
    Key words:  government regulation  electric bicycle sharing  citizens' right to travel  sharing economy  system design
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