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    大数据背景下个人信息处理行为的法律规制——以个人信息处理行为的双重外部性为分析视角
    胡朝阳
    东南大学 法学院, 江苏 南京 210096
    摘要:
    大数据背景下个人信息处理行为既引发数据安全风险等负外部性,也会带来分享经济价值实现等正外部性,"大数据悖论"现象揭示了双重外部性成因。基于"外部性内在化"原理赋予信息主体以个人信息权并赋予数据控制者以大数据财产权虽有助分别规制其双重外部性,但网络大数据背景下其双重外部性规制彼此交互影响而面临两难困境。法经济学关于"损害之相互性"理论证立了基于"风险导向理念"规制个人信息处理以破解其两难困境的经济逻辑。大数据产业发展有赖个人信息处理的"外部性外部化"而实现分享经济。法经济学关于"公地喜剧"理论证立了基于"外部性外部化"规制个人信息处理而满足大数据产业发展需要的经济逻辑。大数据背景下个人信息处理的规制有赖从"压制型法"到兼及"回应型法"的理念转换,从"外部性内在化"兼及"外部性外部化"的机制并举,从数据资源权利配置兼及数字技术权力干预的措施协同,实现大数据产业创新与个人信息安全的有机平衡。
    关键词:  大数据  个人信息处理  双重外部性  大数据悖论  法律规制
    DOI:10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.fx.2019.06.001
    分类号:D922.8
    基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(2242015S20060)
    Legal regulation of personal information processing action in the background of big data: From the perspective of dual externalities of personal information processing
    HU Chaoyang
    School of Law, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, P. R. China
    Abstract:
    Personal information processing not only causes negative externalities such as data security risks,but also brings positive externalities such as the realization of sharing economy in the background of big data. The causes of double externalities can be revealed by the phenomenon of "Three Paradoxes of Big Data". Based on the theory of "internalization of externalities",both the negative externalities and the positive externalities from personal information processing will be regulated if the information subject is empowered with the rights to personal information,and the data controller is empowered with the rights to big data property. However,in the background of network big data,dual externalities of personal information processing are interacted with each other and faced with some dilemmas. The theory of "mutuality of damage" in law and economics provides an economic logical explanation for regulating personal information processing behavior based on the "risk-based approach". The development of big data industry depends on the "externalization of externalities" of personal information processing to realize its sharing economy. The theory of "comedy of the commons" in law and economics provides the economic logic proof for regulating personal information processing behavior based on the "externalization of externalities" in order to meet the needs of big data industry development. For the regulation of personal information processing in the background of big data,we should enforce the transformation from the "repressive law" to the "responsive law" on ideas,the coexistence of both the "internalization of externalities" and the "externalization of externalities" on mechanisms,the coordination of both the data resources rights allocation and the digital technology power intervention on measures,so that the organic balance between big data industry innovation and personal information security can be achieved.
    Key words:  big data  personal information processing  dual externalities  paradoxes of big data  legal regulation
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