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    清前期西北战时军需牲畜供应体系探讨——以平准战争中运粮牲畜供应为例
    刘锦增
    山西大学 晋商学研究所, 山西 太原 030006
    摘要:
    为保证平准战争中的军粮运输,清政府十分重视运粮牲畜供应。在康熙帝用兵噶尔丹期间,运粮牲畜主要由官方牧场直接调拨。康熙末年,为解决运粮牲畜不足问题,清政府开始在一些重要的军需转输地或西北前线设立专用牧场,牧放和孳生牲畜,以供调配。此外,清政府还通过采买、雇用或租借、官民捐献、由运粮者自行筹备等渠道来保证运粮牲畜的供应。总体来看,平准战争中清军运粮牲畜来源渠道呈现多样化,供应效果较为理想,但不同阶段供应侧重不同。平准战争在客观上促进了西北地区畜牧业的发展,也为此后清政府在新疆大规模发展官营畜牧业提供了借鉴经验。
    关键词:  清朝  平准战争  军粮运输  运粮牲畜  畜牧业
    DOI:10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.rw.2019.10.005
    分类号:F329;K249
    基金项目:国家社会科学基金青年项目"清政府经略新疆中的粮饷问题研究"(19CZS060);教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目"六百年来西北地区人类活动与资源环境关系研究"(14JJD770014)
    The supply system of wartime military supplies and livestock in northwest China in the early Qing Dynasty: Taking the supply of livestock for transporting army provisions in the Junggar war as an example
    LIU Jinzeng
    Research Institute of Jin-Merchants Studies, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, P. R. China
    Abstract:
    To ensure the transportation of army provisions during the war fighting against Junggar,the Qing government attached great importance to the supply of livestock for transporting army provisions. During Emperor Kangxi's war against Gardan,livestock were mainly supplied directly from state-run pastures. In the late Kangxi period,to solve the problem of insufficient livestock for transporting army provisions,the Qing government began to set up special pastures to graze and breed livestock in some important military transit areas and on the northwest front. The Qing government also ensured the supply of livestock through purchasing,hiring or leasing,donation,and grain carriers' self-supply. Generally,the sources of livestock for transporting Qing army provisions in the Junggar War were diversified,and the effect was good,but the emphasis of supply was different at different stages. The Junggar War objectively promoted the development of animal husbandry in northwest China and provided a reference for the Qing government to develop large-scale state-run animal husbandry in Xinjiang.
    Key words:  the Qing Dynasty  the Junggar War  army provisions transporting  livestock for transporting army provisions  animal husbandry
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