The construction process of anchor,fiber concrete and its mechanical principle of interaction with surrounding rocks is studied by field tests from the view of researching stability of single layer tunneling lining. The mechanical properties of single layer lining in the practical application of tunnel engineering are measured. On the basis of this study,the mechanism of single layer tunnel lining is discussed,which is finally applied to the engineering practice,formatting a set of theoretical support for the design method of single layer lining. Studies found that close effect between fiber reinforced concrete and rock is well,which shows that the single layer lining design method to ensure quality and safety proposed in this paper is feasible,and construction characteristic of retaining structure is reliable. The method can be widely applied in engineering practice,and has remarkable economic benefit and social benefit.