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燃煤电厂锅炉PM2.5现场实测与排放特征研究
杨建军1, 杜利劳2, 马启翔2, 林启才2, 卢立栋2, 刘赵梅2, 徐楠2, 申圆圆1
1.西安文理学院 生物与环境工程学院, 西安 710065;2.陕西省环境科学研究院, 西安 710061
摘要:
采用自设固定源PM2.5稀释采集系统对陕西省关中地区多个燃煤电厂烟气中的颗粒物开展了现场实测与样品化学源组分分析。结果表明:4个燃煤电厂PM2.5、PM10占颗粒物比重差异较大(PM2.5占比范围为6.92%~54.34%,PM10占比范围为36.36%~73.02%);4个燃煤电厂数浓度水平最高值(2.0×104~4.0×105个/cm3)差异较大,相差约1个数量级;燃煤电厂PM2.5小粒径段颗粒物质量浓度占比大多较低,但其对PM2.5数浓度贡献却很大(最小值>95%),大粒径段颗粒物则相反;煤粉炉PM1/PM2.5较大,占比范围为35.29%~51.35%,循环流化床锅炉PM1/PM2.5较小,占比范围为16.62%~21.47%;SO42-是燃煤电厂PM2.5中最丰富的离子成分,各电厂SO42-占总离子浓度比重范围为50.02~65.52%,Na+和Ca2+位于第2或第3位;各燃煤电厂主要检出机元素是Si、Al、Ca、Na、Fe、Na等地壳元素;燃煤电厂PM2.5、PM10和颗粒物的排放因子范围分别为0.001~0.028 kg/t、0.002~0.086 kg/t、0.003~0.236 kg/t;除尘设施组合越复杂先进,排放因子就可能越小。
关键词:  燃煤电厂  PM2.5  粒径分布  水溶性离子  机元素  排放因子
DOI:10.11835/j.issn.1000-582X.2018.12.007
分类号:X513
基金项目:陕西省科技统筹创新工程计划课题(2012KTZB03-01)。
Study on emission characteristics and field measurement of PM2.5 in coal-fired power plant boilers
YANG Jianjun1, DU Lilao2, MA Qixiang2, LIN Qicai2, LU Lidong2, LIU Zhaomei2, XU Nan2, SHEN Yuanyuan1
1.School of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Xi'an University of Arts and Science, Xi'an 710065, P. R. China;2.Shaanxi Research Academy of Environmental Science, Xi'an 710061, P. R. China
Abstract:
Field experiments and chemical composition analysis of particle in flue gas from several coal-fired power plants in Guanzhong area of Shaanxi province was carried out with dilution and collection system of PM2.5 in stationary sources designed by the team. The results show that the proportions of PM2.5 and PM10 in the particles of 4 coal-fired power plants are quite different. The proportion of PM2.5 ranges from 6.92% to 54.34%, and the proportion of PM10 ranges from 36.36% to 73.02%. Maximum values (2.0×104 to 4.0×105/cm3) of number concentration levels from 4 coal-fired power plants are quite different, and the difference is about 1 order of magnitude. The mass concentration proportion of small particles to PM2.5 from coal-fired power plants is mostly low, but the small particles' contribution to PM2.5 number concentration is great (minimum value > 95%), and the situation of the large particles is quite the opposite. The PM1/PM2.5 value of the pulverized coal boiler is large, the ratio range is between 35.29% and 51.35%, and the PM1/PM2.5 value of the circulating fluidized bed boiler is small, the ratio range is between 16.62% and 21.47%. SO42- is the most abundant ion component in PM2.5 of coal-fired power plants, and the proportion of SO42- to total ion concentration ranges from 50.02% to 65.52%, Na+ and Ca2+ ranking second or third. The main inorganic elements detected in the coal-fired power plants are Si, Al, Ca, Na, Fe, Na and other crustal elements. The emission factors' range of PM2.5, PM10 and particles in the coal-fired power plants are 0.001 to 0.028 kg/t, 0.002 to 0.086 kg/t and 0.003 to 0.236 kg/t, respectively. The more complex and advanced the combination of dust removal facilities is, the smaller the emission factor is likely to be.
Key words:  coal-fired power plant  PM2.5  particle size distribution  water-soluble ion  inorganic element  emission factor
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